"Owners and managers of entertainment establishments, and sex brokers (pimps), do not hesitate to use threats of denunciation to the authorities and family repudiation, and actual psychological, physical and sexual violence, to intimidate their victims," the report says.
"The impossibility of leaving the exploiter is entrenched by the fact that women known to have engaged in sex work have limited opportunities to secure income by other means."
Asian and African women are particularly vulnerable to being deceived and coerced into sexual exploitation, the report said.
Some are lured away from their original employers with promises of love or a better job, and then forced into sex work, while others are abducted on arrival and taken to underground brothels, or are tricked into thinking they have a job as a waitress or singer in a nightclub and then made to provide sexual services.
In some cases, those running the sex rings are other migrant workers, often of the same nationality, the report said. Local sponsors may also be involved or turn a blind eye.
"Even though prostitution is legally forbidden in most countries of the Middle East, the commercial sex industry employing foreign women is unofficially tolerated," the report said.
In part, this is because demand for sexual services is stubbornly high. In addition to the local demand, there are also large numbers of male migrant workers who are away from home for long periods and cannot fulfill their natural sex drive by legitimate means, the report says.
A Nepalese client of sex workers is quoted as saying: "I think the majority of women are forced to have sex. They are physically beaten, isolated and locked in the apartments. The clients are usually aware that the women are forced but are okay with this because they themselves are sexually deprived."
Some girls from Middle Eastern countries who are forced into marriage are also pushed into prostitution by their husbands, the report says.
'Forced into the desert'
But while much attention focuses on the plight of women, male migrant workers in the construction, manufacturing, seafaring and agriculture sectors are also vulnerable to human trafficking, the report says.
They "are routinely deceived with respect to living and working conditions, the type of work to be performed, or even the existence of a job at all."
Some migrant workers reported having been recruited as domestic workers -- but then forced to tend animal herds in the desert.
A "runaway" Sri Lankan shepherd interviewed in Kuwait told the ILO: "I came to Kuwait to work as a driver and my employer took me across the border in Saudi Arabia for six months.
"I lived in a small steel hut with no air conditioning, no electricity and no shower or toilet. I was not allowed to kill the animals to feed myself. I was scared of my employer who tried to hit me but I said, 'If you hit me, I will hit you back.'"
Complex factors make it almost impossible for many to leave if it all goes wrong.
Chief among these is the "kafala," or sponsorship, system that governs most migrant workers in the region. This, the ILO says, is "inherently problematic" because it creates an unequal power dynamic between the employer and the worker.
Many employers justify holding the passports of migrant workers because under the system they are legally responsible for the worker's residency and employment.
They may also hold back wages -- meaning workers can't leave because they risk ending up with nothing -- or charge sky-high "release" fees to stop exploited workers from seeking jobs elsewhere.
"The system was not set up to create this extreme dependence between employers and workers," Andrees said.
Of course, not every migrant worker has a bad experience, and for many the opportunity to work overseas delivers the promised escape from grinding poverty at home.
The presence of migrant workers is also vital to the economies of many countries in the Middle East -- and in some, they outnumber the national workers substantially, the ILO points out.
In Qatar, an astonishing 94% of workers are migrants, while in Saudi Arabia that figure is over 50%, the report says. Migrants also make up a significant part of the workforce in Jordan and Lebanon.
The ILO report highlights some positive changes in the region, saying governments and other groups have stepped up efforts to combat forced labor and human trafficking in recent years, including through the passage of anti-trafficking legislation.